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Metabotropic receptors on the other hand activate second messenger cascade systems that result in the opening of ion channel located some place else on the same postsynaptic membrane.

Although slower than ionotropic receptors that function as on-and-off switches, metabotropic receptors have the advantage of changing the cell's responsiveness to ions and other metabolites, examples being gamma amino-butyric acid (inhibitory transmitter), glutamic acid (excitatory transmitter), dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, melanin, serotonin, melatonin, and substance P.

Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.

Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.

Neurons are diverse with respect to morphology and function.

Thus, not all neurons correspond to the stereotypical motor neuron with dendrites and myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).

Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.Following several local graded depolarizations of the membrane potential, the threshold of excitation is reached, voltage-gated sodium channels are activated, which leads to an influx of Na ions.As Na ions enter the cell, the membrane potential is further depolarized, and more voltage-gated sodium channels are activated.Such a process is also known as a positive feedback loop.

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Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

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